Acquired brain injury, which is otherwise known as traumatic brain injury, happens when there is an external, sudden, physical assault that causes brain damage. It is regarded as one among the most common causes of both disability and death of the adults. It may be described as focal which affects one site of the brain or may be diffuse which affects more than one site of the brain. Its severity ranges from mild concussions to severe injuries that will lead to coma or death.
The types of acquired brain injury include the following:
• Closed Brain Injury – there is no penetrating injury to the brain or breakage in the skull. It occurs when there is rapid shaking or movement of brain inside the skull which leads to tearing or bruising to both of the brain tissues and the blood vessels. This injury usually occurs following car accidents, falls, or baby shaking like the shaken baby syndrome.
• Penetrating Brain Injury – also regarded as open head injury that happens when there is breakage in the skull like a bullet that pierce the brain.
Acquired brain injury is the damage of the brain that is due to events following birth which results to impairments of the cognitive, emotional, physical, and behavioral aspects that may lead to temporary or permanent functional changes.
There are two categories of acquired brain injury and these are the following:
• Non-Traumatic Brain Injuries – causes of the injuries are not violent such as:
– aneurism in the brain
– tumors in the brain
– metabolic or toxic injury
– drug and alcohol abuse
• Traumatic Brain Injuries – causes may be violent such as:
– road accidents
– open or penetrating injuries to the head
– injuries caused by sports including concussions
The signs and symptoms that acquired brain injury exhibits include anhedonia, aphasia, apraxia, amnesia, andynamia, emotional flooding, disinhibition, and perseveration. There is association of acquired brain injury to emotional difficulties like depression, management of anger impulses, self-control issues, and problem-solving challenges.
The way that a client copes with injuries has been found to have influence on the level at which they are experiencing the emotional complications that are correlated with acquired brain injury. It is common for clients to experience memory loss or memory disorders after an acquired brain injury. Research shows that clients with acquired brain injury utilize memory aids following an injury like the use of a diary.
Children with acquired brain injury have difficulties with emotional and cognitive functions that lead to negative impact with regards to their participation in school, home, or in the community. Younger people who have acquired brain injury have insufficiency with problem solving skills.
The rehabilitation for acquired brain injury is an individualized process involving multi-disciplinary approach because of the various mechanisms of injury as well as the structures affected by the injury. The team for the rehabilitation includes the nurses, physiotherapists, speech-language pathologists, neurologists, occupational therapists, psychologists, and music therapists. It is essential that the rehabilitation be client-centered and guided by both of the needs and goals of the client.